The administration of President Barack Obama has launched a program designed to improve efforts by the federal government to investigate and prosecute human traffickers, Attorney General Eric Holder said Tuesday.
The program will include pilot “anti-trafficking coordination teams” led by top federal law enforcement officials based across the United States with different agencies, said Holder, speaking at a State Department meeting with Obama administration officials, including Secretary of State Hillary Clinton, Labor Secretary Hilda Solis, Homeland Security Secretary Janet Napolitano and FBI Director Robert Mueller. The Obama administration has yet to announce what cities will host the teams.
“The launch of these ACTeams will enable us to leverage the assets and expertise of each federal enforcement agency more effectively than ever before,” Holder said. “But we will not rest until this unprecedented collaboration translates into the results that matter most: the liberation of victims and the prosecution of traffickers.”
Holder said the program and work already done by federal officials to combat human trafficking move the government a step closer to winning the battle against the crime. He noted that the DOJ prosecuted the most human-trafficking cases in its history last year. In fiscal 2010, the DOJ handled 52 human-trafficking cases, nine more than the previous record set in fiscal 2009.
Assistant Attorney General Thomas Perez of the DOJ Civil Rights Division told Main Justice last year that the enforcement of human-trafficking laws is a priority of his office.
Perez said human trafficking, a crime in which immigrants are often the victims, is “a national challenge” that affects urban areas as well as suburban and rural communities. The Assistant Attorney General said the influx of immigrants in smaller communities has increased the potential for sex trafficking and involuntary servitude in those locales.
This story has been updated from an earlier version.
Justice Department prosecutors used the Racketeer Influenced and Corrupt Organizations Act for the first time to bring charges against alleged human traffickers in the United States, The Associated Press reported Sunday night.
The Western District of Missouri U.S. Attorney’s Office handed down in May a 45-count indictment, which accuses eight Uzbekistan nationals and four others of turning foreign workers into slaves, according to The AP. The workers were allegedly forced into housekeeping jobs and required to live with other laborers in cramped apartments with high rents, the news wire reported. A trial date hasn’t been set, according to The AP.
RICO, which is usually associated with mafia cases, was amended in 1995 to include language that addresses slavery. Those convicted of racketeering could face up to 25 years in prison and a $250,000 fine.
The charge of fraud in foreign labor contracting was also used for the first time since it was added to the 2000 Trafficking Victims Protections Act last year, according to The AP. The Trafficking Victims Protections Act was the first bill to comprehensively prosecute human traffickers when it became law.
Acting U.S. Attorney Matt Whitworth told The AP that the Bush administration started to pay significant attention to human trafficking after the passage of the Trafficking Victims Protection Act, but the Obama administration has gone further.
“(Attorney General) Eric Holder is encouraging U.S. Attorneys offices to pursue these cases and has shown a great deal of interest in more and more of this type of prosecution,” Whitworth said. “I think we’re making an impact, and the Department of Justice is encouraging us to do that.”
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Assistant Majority Leader Sen. Dick Durbin has been one of the Senate’s most passionate voices against Bush-era detention policies. But don’t expet the Illinois Democrat to use his chairmanship of a newly revived Senate Judiciary human rights subcommittee as a partisan bully pulpit.
Instead, Durbin said he will work with Sen. Tom Coburn (R-Okla.) to find common ground on an agenda. He’s taking the gavel of the subcommittee for a second time, after giving up chairmanship of the plum Judiciary crime subcommittee to party-switching Sen. Arlen Specter (D-Pa.)
The human rights panel plans to address child soldiers, genocide, sexual violence and human trafficking — all concerns Coburn shares as well. In particular, conservatives and liberals have come together to fight international human trafficking, including the forced prostitution of women.
“While we had some legislative success, far more needs to be done,” Durbin said in a statement last month after he received the subcommittee gavel again. “We will continue to work on these and other issues as we try to ensure that America remains committed to human rights both at home and abroad.”
Coburn said he is please the subcommittee has been revived.
“We have a lot of issues we need to look at it,” Coburn said in an interview.
Tom Malinowski, Washington director for the Human Rights Watch which worked with the panel in the past, said he hopes the reestablished subcommittee will continue the work it did in the last Congress that led to the enactment of the Genocide Accountability Act and the Child Soldiers Accountability Act, which targeted world leaders who engaged in severe human rights abuses.
He said that while the subcommittee tackled many weighty issues, it avoided some topics that could have caused severe divisions between subcommittee Democrats and Republicans, such as the Bush administration’s policies on indefinite prisoner detentions, which Durbin openly criticized.
“Durbin made a point of choosing issues that Sen. Coburn was interested in working on,” Malinowski said.
Helping the senators to develop an agenda will be majority chief counsel Joseph Zogby and minority chief counsel Brooke Bacak. Zogby was previously the chief counsel for the human rights and the law subcommittee and then served the brief stint as Durbin’s chief counsel on crime and drugs subcommittee. Mary Harned previously held the minority post.
The Justice Department will also continue to work with the subcommittee. During the 110th Congress, members of the Civil and Criminal divisions often testified before the subcommittee.
“We look forward to working with the subcommittee on human rights and the law on the important issues it may address,” DOJ spokesperson Alejandro Miyar wrote in an e-mail.
Although there will be some familiar faces working with the subcommittee, not all the subcommittee members from the 110th Congress have rejoined the panel.
There were six Democrats and five Republicans on the subcommittee in the 110th Congress. Now, joining Durbin and Coburn will be four Democrats and two Republicans – Sens. Specter (D-Pa.), Russ Feingold (D- Wisc.), Ben Cardin (D-Md.), Ted Kaufman (D-Del.), John Cornyn (R-Texas) and Lindsey Graham (R-S.C.) Graham and Sen. John McCain sponsored legislation in 2005 that would have banned the harsh interrogation methods used against suspected terrorists.
Vice President Joe Biden, Sen. Ted Kennedy (D-Mass.) and Sen. Sam Brownback (R-Kan.) are missing from the subcommittee because they no longer sit on the Senate Judiciary Committee. Also, Sens. Jon Kyl (R-Ariz.) and Sheldon Whitehouse (D-R.I.) will not return to the panel.
The decision of Specter to leave the Republican Party led to the reestablishment of the subcommittee in May, after Senate Judiciary Chairman Patrick Leahy (D-Vt.) disbanded the two-year-old panel in February.
“With the change of administrations, and the transition to this new Congress, we are not continuing the subcommittee,” Leahy said in testimony before the Judiciary Committee in February. “No one should confuse that with a lack of commitment to the human rights agenda.”
The subcommittee was the loser in a game of musical chairs.
Biden was the chair of the crime and drugs subcommittee in the 110th Congress. He relinquished his gavel to Durbin after becoming vice president. The Illinois senator then had to give up his human rights and the law subcommittee chairmanship because Democratic rules didn’t allow him to hold more than one Judiciary subcommittee gavel.
Durbin, in turn, relinquished his crime and drugs subcommittee to Specter in May. He’d held hearings on sentencing dispairities between federal crack and powder cocaine offenses and Mexican drug cartels before handing the gavel to Specter. Durbin said his said the move was not meant to appease the long-serving Pennsylvanian, who’d been stripped of his seniority by the Democratic caucus after switching parties.
“I raised this issue long before feathers were ruffled,” Durbin said at a pen-and-pad session with reporters in May.
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